Earth's Paradise Treks & Expeditions

About Nepal


Due to unique topographical diversity of altitude, Nepal is one of the richest countries in the world with almost all kinds of climates. It is extended from 58m lowland Terai to the top of the world; the Mt. Everest 8850m. Over 100 known different tribal/ethnic groups with their wonderful classical culture are settled in the country from fertile land terai to the isolated remote glacial valleys in the Himalaya. This is the only one place in the world where you can have the entire global latitudinal experience within 2-3 weeks by trekking/tour.

Nepal lies in the core Himalayan region that has wonderful fertile plain lands in terai, beautiful intermountain valleys in the hills and majestic mountains, tranquil glacial lakes and isolated valleys in the Himalaya. Nepal is one of the most scenic parts in the world where are unique opportunities to travelers for trekking, mountaineering, rafting, jungle adventures and studying in geology, nature, classical culture, history and many more. There are so many interesting places and things to see in the Nepal Himalaya like sky soaring peaks, hanging icefalls, active glaciers and frequent avalanches, beautiful intermountain valleys, thundering rivers and rivulets, tranquil lakes, tropical forests, rare floras and faunas, medieval era artistic temples and shrines, traditional villages, classical tribal culture and unique life style of mountain people.   

People of this region are the faith healers; they are more natural and believe in the supernatural forces. People have a strong majority in superstition than the science even in the educated society. Superstition, witchcraft and propitiation take place in each ethnic tributary group and society. Shaman seems to be the first doctor even in the educated family. According to the Hindu epics, there are more than 330 millions gods and goddesses in the universe. In Nepal, it is believed that there are more gods and goddesses than people, more temples than the houses and more feasts & festivals than the days in a year. The ancient fundamental architecture of Nepal is mainly influenced and decorated by the textual-ascetic Hindu culture and ethnic group's oral tradition. There is co-relation between Buddhism and Hinduism in Nepal and equal respect to all religions. 



Location: 26022' to 30027' north latitude and 80004' to 88012' east longitude 

Time: Nepalese time is 5:45 hours faster than Greenwich meantime.

Area: 147,516sq. Km, 0.3% of Asia and 0.03% of world's total surface area. About 76% land of Nepal is covered by mountains, hills and Himalayas and rest 24% land by flat country Terai and inner Terai. 

Capital city: Kathmandu

Geography: Sovereign independent country bounded on the north by Tibet, China and on the east west and south by India with about 900km east west length and 145 to 241km north south breadth and the altitude from 58m to 8850m.

Religion: Animism, Hinduism and Buddhism, Christian, Muslim etc  

Political system:  Practicing Federal Democratic Republic currently. … 

Language: Nepali; the official language, over 100 tribal languages, English common language for travel trade people, other foreign languages are also used in tourism sector.

Kathmandu (1310m): The biggest, highly populated, capital city and famous valley of Nepal that lies in central Nepal. The area of the valley is

Pokhara (820m): The 2nd biggest, populated, lakeside city and heart alluring beautiful valley of Nepal that lies in west Nepal. The area of the valley is It is the only one place in the world from where it can be seen the Himalayas very closely having a cold drink in the low land city. 

The Basin contains hot climate, rainy weather, most productive land, humid land, fertile and good soil etc. Sera Besi Lamjung, Chutra Besi Ardhakhanchi, Dhuni Besi Dhading, Khimti Besi Ramechhap are the popular Basins of Nepal.

Kali Gandaki River gorge at Dana (1200m) Tatopani in Annapurna circuit trek is the deepest gorge in the world. It lies between Mt. Dhaulagiri (8167m) and Annapuran I (8091m). Tumlingtar in Arun valley (Samkhusabha) is the deepest Tar/valley (457m) in the world that is only 60km far from Mt. Makalu in aerial distance. Mt. Everest and Mt. Kanchanjungha are also close from the Tar. 

Nepal lies at the crossroad of Pale-arctic and Oriental Ecological region where are 7500 species of vegetation and that has Outstanding genetic diversities harboring so far as follows: 

  • Bird 850 types 
  • Butterflies 625 types 
  • Mammals 183 types 
  • Amphibians and reptiles 171 types (70 of them are snakes and 7 are poison out of 70) 
  • Fishes 117 types (all fishes in Nepal are fresh water fishes) 



  • Khaptad National Park, famous for rare species of herbal plant, numerous wetland flora and fauna, wonderful rolling plateau and best for skiing in winter 
  • Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve, famous for spotted deer, python, Bengal tiger, one horned rhino, elephants and wetland flora & fauna
  • Api-Nampa Conservation Area, famous for unique biodiversity, classic culture heritage and grasslands plateau.
  • Bardia National Park & Banke NP, famous for elusive Bengal Tiger, reptiles and Gangetic Dolphin 
  • Blacknuck Conservation Area in Gulariya Bardia, famous for endangered blackbuck.
  • Rara National Park, famous for rare flora and fauna, especially for spiny Babbler, snow leopard…. 
  • Shey-Phoksundo National Park, famous for Shey Gompa, Suligad waterfall, high country flora and fauna (extreme fragile ecosystem zone) 
  • Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, famous for hunting wildlife
  • Annapurna Conservation Area (ACAP), famous for snow leopard, Himalayan munal, blue sheep, numerous midland and high country flora and fauna
  • Manaslu Ecotourism Area (MCAP), famous for high country flora and fauna 
  • Shivpuri & Nagarjun National Park, famous for midland flora and fauna, the main source of water to the Kathmandu valley 
  • Chitwan National Park, famous for bird watching, one horned rhino, elephants and numerous lowland flora and fauna (enlisted in World Heritage Site) 
  • Langtang National Park, famous for wild boar, panda (red and BW))
  • Parsa Wildlife Reserve, famous for lowland flora and fauna 
  • Gaurishankar Conservation Area, famous for rare Himalayan flora & fauna, Kalinchowk Bhagwati temple and sacred Himalayan landscape.
  • Sagarmatha National Park, famous for musk deer, Himalayan Munal, greatest Himalaya massif with Mt. Everest (enlisted in world Heritage site of UNESCO) 
  • Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, famous for bird watching and wild buffalo called “ARNA”
  • Makalu Barun National Park, famous for floral and faunal studies, specially for bird watching 
  • Kanchenjungha Conservation area, famous for rare flora and fauna.



  • Ghodaghodi Lake in Kailali
  • Rara Lake in Mugu; the biggest lake of Nepal
  • Phoksundo Lake in Dolpa; the deepest lake of Nepal
  • Jagdishpur Reservior in Kapilvastu
  • Bishazari Tal in Chitwan
  • Lake Cluster of Pokhara, Kaski
  • Tilicho Glacial lake (4919m) in Manang; the highest located in the world 
  • Gosainkund in Rasuwa; holy lake
  • Gokyo Lake Complex in Khumbu
  • Koshi Tappu in Sunsari, Saptari and Udayapur
  • Mai Pokhari in Ilam



  • Seti, Karnali and Mahakali in Far Western Nepal. 
  • Gandaki, Seti, Marsyangdi-Narayani in Central Nepal 
  • Trisuli,  
  • Bhote Koshi, Sunkoshi, Arun Koshi and Tamor Koshi in Eastern Nepal



  • Tinkar pass: Darchula 
  • Yari pass/Nara Lagna: Humla, is the popular and shortest way to Kailash, Man Sarovar Tibet from Nepal.
  • Korala:  Mustang 
  • Lugula pass (6723m): Manang, the highest pass of Nepal between Nepal and Tibet
  • Rasuwagadhi pass: Rasuwa to Kerung central Nepal  
  • Kodari pass: Tatopani Sindhupalchowk, all year open very famous pass
  • Kuti pass: Through Jungal Himal Central Nepal
  • Nangpala pass: Through Cho Oyu, Solukhumbu; in Everest region
  • Popti pass/Olanchungola/ Kimathanka Pass: Samkhuwasabha; Eastern Nepal



Group Age Major units Distribution 
Siwalik group Mid-Miocene to Pleistocene Sand stone, mud-stone conglomerates Siwaliks (east to west)
Coral group/Coral Thrust or MBT   Limestone, calcareous, shale Siwaliks, eastern half of the middle mountain
Nuwakot group Precambrian to early Paleozoic  Arggillaceous with phyllites Mountains 
Katmandu group  Pre-Cambrian to Devonian Schists, phyllites, marbles, quartzites, gneiss Middle mountains
Himalayan gneiss group Pre-Cambrian To Cambrian Gneiss, marble, quartzite High mountains, Himalayan region
Tethys or Tibetan group Cambrian to Cretaceous Dolomites, shale quartzite, sandstone Himalayan region




Mountain                                Height

Mt. Everest                               8850m

Mt. Kanchenjunga                    8586m

Mt. Lhotse                                8516m

Mt. Makalu                              8463m

Mt. Cho Oyu                            8201m

Mt. Dhaulagiri                          8167m

Mt. Manaslu                             8163m

Mt. Annapurna                         8091m



  • Pashupatinath (Lord Shiv) temple area -Kathmandu, Central Nepal 
  • Lumbini, Lord Buddha's birth place -West Nepal 
  • Changunarayan temple area -Bhaktapur, Central Nepal 
  • Baudhanath Stupa area -Kathmandu, Central Nepal 
  • Swayambhunath Stupa area -Kathmandu, Central Nepal 
  • Hanumandhoka Durbar Square -Kathmandu, Central Nepal 
  • Bhaktapur Durbar Square -Bhaktapur, Central Nepal 
  • Patan Durbar Square -Lalitpur, Central Nepal 
  • Royal Chitwan National Park -Chitwan, Central Nepal 
  • Sagarmatha National park -Mt. Everest region, Eastern Nepal 


PEOPLE OF NEPAL (4 major hierarchical caste, over 100 tribes and few nomads)

  • Ethnic group system - Gurung, Magar, Tamang, Sherpa, Limbu / Rai (Kiranti), Jyapu(Newar), Bhotia…
  • Hierarchical caste system - Brahmin, Kshetri, Baisya and Sudra 
  • Aborigines - Tharu, Danuwar, Majhi, Jhangad, Satar, Kusunda etc. 
  • Nomadic Tradition -Raute (full nomads roaming in far western Nepal forests), Raji (semi nomads in far western Nepal), Khampa Bhotia (sheep/yak herders in Mustang, Dolpo and Mugu/trans-Himalaya)

Currency:  Nepalese Rupees (NPR/Rs) 

Nepal Visa: Tourist visa is obtained upon arrival points: US$30 for 15 days, US$50 for 30 days & US$125 for 90 days. 

Gratis Visa (Visa for Free): Children below 10 years, Chinese nationals, up to 30 days for SAARC nationals (Nepali inviting documents required for Afganistan national) and no visa required for Indian nationals.


Entry & Exit points for the foreigners who are required to obtain visas:

-Tribhuvan International Airport, Kathmandu                 -Kakadvitta, Jhapa, eastern border

-Kodari, Sindupalchok, northern border                         -Birgunj, Parsa 

-Belahiya, (Sunauli) Rupendehi                                     -Jamunaha, Nepalgunj, Banke 

-Mohana, Dhangadhi, Kailali                                         -Gadda Chauki, Mahendranagar, Kanchanpur 


Restricted Areas of Nepal                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Himalayan regions adjoining to Tibet, requires special permits from the government through trekking companies. We obtain all required permits on behalf of our clients (permit fee in US dollar):

S.N. Area  Permit fee per person
1-2 Upper Dolpa & Upper Mustang  1st 10 days $500 thereafter $50 per day

Darchula: Byas Gaupalika Ward no 1 and Bajhang: Saipal Gaupalika Ward 1-5 (above Kanda) 

 1st week $90 thereafter $15 per day  
5 Humla: Simikot Gaupalika ward 1, 6 7, Namkha Gaupalika ward 1-6 and  Changkheli ward 3-5  1st week $ 50 thereafter $ 10 perday 
6 Mugu: Mugumakarmorang Gaupalika (all area of ward 1-9)  1st week $100 thereafter $15 perday 


Manang: Narpa Gaupalika ward 1-5 Nasho Gaupalika ward 6-7

Gorkha Manaslu area: Chumnubri Gaupalika, ward 1-4


Sept-Nov: 1st week $100 thereafter $15perday 

 Dec-Aug: 1st week $75 thereafter $10perday

9 Gorkha Tsum Valley area: Sirdibas-Lokpa-Chumling-Chekampar-Nile-Chule: Chumnubri ward 3, 6, 7

 Sept-Nov: 1st week $40 thereafter $7 per day 

 Dec-Aug: 1st week $30 thereafter $7 per day

10 Lowe Dolpa Area: Thuli Bheri ward 1-11, Tripurasundari 1-11, Dolpo Buddha 1-3, She Phoksundo 8-9, Jagdulla 1-6, Mudkechula 1-9 & Kaike 1-7

 1st week US$20 thereafter US$5 per day


11 Dolakha: Gaurishankar ward 9 and Bigu ward 1  US$20 per week
12 Rasuwa: Gosainkunda all area of ward 1 & few area of ward 2  US$20 per week 
13 Solukhumbu: Pasang Lhamu ward 5  1st 4 week US$20 thereafter US$25 per week
14 Sankhuwasabha:  Bhotkhola ward 1-5 & Makalu ward 4  1st 4 week US$20 thereafter US$25 per week
15 Taplejung: Phantunglung ward 6-7, Mikwakhola 5 Sirijunga 8  1st 4 week US$20 thereafter US$25 per week
Note:- In the case of Upper Mustang and Upper Dolpa Region if the royalty paid for mountain expedition is less than the fee for trekking permit then the difference amount should be paid. 


Monthly rainfall & temperature of some tour places of Nepal

First line: Precipitation [mm]. Second line: Temperature-Max/Min [oC]
(Altitude meters)
Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
Kathmandu 18  11 33 54 83 270  383  338  160 62 7
(1340m) 19/2  21/3  25/10  33/16  30/20  30/20  30/22  29/21  29/20  28/13  23/8  23/3 
Langtang 20  23 29 57 90 319 463 474 265 107 14 
(3500m) 2/-11 3/-10 8/-6 14/-2 17/2 18/7 19/9 18/8 16/7 15/2 9/-8 8/-10
Pokhara 26  25 50 87 292 569 809 705 581 224  19
(820m) 19/6  21/8  26/12  30/15  30/18  29/20  29/21  29/21  28/20  26/17  23/11  20/7 



20  18 23 15 11 17 41 54 35  37 2
(2710m) 12/-3 13/-1 16/2 20/4 23/7 25/12 25/14 25/14 23/11 19/5 15/1 13/-2



3 71 72 10  50  106 182 145 65 59 8 24
(3440m) 9/-3  13/1 14/1 20/7 19/6 21/11 21/10 21/10 19/10 17/6 14/1 11/-3

Namche Bazaar

Everest trek

26 23  34 26 41 140 243  243  165 78 9 39
(3440m) 7/-8 6/-6 9/-3 12/1 14/4 15/6 16/8  16/8 15/6 12/2  9/3 7/-6 
Tengboche  13  24 23 25 29 95 280 265 140 72  9
(3867) 4/-9 5/-9  9/-6 12/-4 14/-1 14/3 14/5 14/4 13/2 12/-2 8/-7 6/-7
Terai (Lumbini,  Dhangadhi) 12  3 3 6 12 93 237 194 108 27 0 12
(58m-300m)  22/9 24/12 32/15 37/21 39/25 37/26 35/26 33/26 33/26 32/20 28/13 24/9
Ilam Tea garden 10  8 18 62 139 321 463 280 215 81 8
(1300m) 16/9 18/10 23/14 25/16 25/17 25/18  25/18 25/19 25/17 25/16 21/12 18/8