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Introduction to Nepal
Facts about Nepal
Valleys, Basins and Gorges/Tars
Famous Rivers for Adventures
Floral & Faunal Bio-Diversity
National Park, Wildlife Reserve and Protected area of Nepal
Restircted Area of Nepal
Major Lithographic Group
Mountains above 8000m.
World Heritage sites and exotic trips
Caste of Nepal
Hidden Treasure-Far Western Nepal
Nepal lies in central Himalayas that covers more than one-third part of the Himalayan range lying in Tibetan plateau. Total length of the Himalayan range is about 2400km from Indus River in the west to Bramhaputra River in the east but the Nepal Himalayas' average length is 885km from east to west. Nepal is one of the most scenic parts in the world where are unique opportunities to travelers for trekking, mountaineering, rafting, jungle adventures and studying in geology, nature, culture, history and many more. There are many places and things to see in Himalayan Hindu kingdom Nepal. The sky soaring peaks, hanging icefalls, glaciers and frequent avalanches, beautiful intermountain valleys, rivers and rivulets, tectonic-glacial and ox-bow lakes, tropical forests, rare types of floras and faunas, traditional life style of mountain people, are the welcoming ornaments for the tourists. Geographically Nepal is a small country but it is a unique part of the world where can be seen almost all kinds of climates, weathers, forests and geographical situations found in the world because of the topographical diversity of altitude. The elevation of the lowest part of Nepal is 60masl and the highest part of Nepal is the Mt. Everest 8848m; the top of the world. It can be obtained the world's latitudinal experience in Nepal within 3 weeks.

Nepal can be one of the top destinations for the tourists as well as the earth scientists. Nepal is a very small piece of land in the world but it has a unique specialty. 8 out of 14 peaks above 8000m in the world, including Mt. Everest lie in Nepal. A foreigner named to the Mt. Everest as the Third Pole. According to the Japanese tourists- Manaslu (8163m) is the Fujisan of Nepal and according to the geologist Toni Hagen-Machhapuchchhre (Fishtail Mountain) is the matter-horn of Nepal. Antecedent and consequent rivers like Koshi, Gandaki and Karnali offer the unique river adventures to the tourists. This is the rich land in bio-diversity. More than 7500 types of vegetation and rare types of faunas are found in Nepal. A bird spiny babbler was extinct for 150 years from the world but again it is found only in Arun valley Nepal in 1992AD.

People of this region are the faith healers, they are more natural and believe in the supernatural forces. People have a strong majority in superstition than the science even in the educated society. Superstition, witchcraft and propitiation take place in each ethnic tributary group and society. Shaman is the first doctor even in the educated family. According to the Hindu epics, there are more than 3300 hundred thousand gods and goddesses in the universe. In fact there are more gods and goddesses than people and more shrines and temples than the houses in Nepal. There are so many kinds of feasts and festivals all over Nepal and they occur almost everyday. There are local and national festivals and secular and religious festivals in Nepal. The ancient fundamental architecture of Nepal is mainly influenced and decorated by the textual-ascetic Hindu culture and ethnic group's oral tradition. There is co-relation between Buddhist and Hindu religion. The ethnic group people of Nepal are more like Mangolian and their society is mainly influenced by the Tibetan culture.

Nepal provides the unique opportunities to travelers like trekking, mountaineering, rock climbing, rafting/kayaking/canyoning, jungle safari, bird watching, mountain biking, mountain flight, ultra-light aircraft, meditation/yoga/ayurveda, bungy jumping, cable car, paragliding, hot air ballooning, village tours and festival tours. Special interest tours like geological, zoological, meteorological, archaeological, mythological, historical, game hunting, cultural and village tours can be conducted in Nepal throughout all seasons to match all different tastes. Nepal is the ultimate destination of mysticism and exoticism.


Location : 26022' to 30027' north latitude and 80004' to 88012' east longitude
Time : Nepalese time is 5:45 hours faster than Greenwich meantime.
Area : 147181sq. Km, 0.3% of Asia and 0.03% of world's total surface area. About 76% land of Nepal is covered by mountains, hills and Himalayas and rest 24% land by flat country Terai and inner Terai.
Expansion and altitude : Average length 885km, average width 193km and the altitude is from 60m to 8848m.

Kathmandu (1337m): The biggest, highly populated, kingdom city and famous valley of Nepal that lies in central Nepal. The area of the valley is

Pokhara (819m): The 2nd biggest, populated, lakeside city and heart alluring beautiful valley of Nepal that lies in west Nepal. The area of the valley is It is the only one place in the world from where it can be seen the Himalayas very closely having a cold drink in the low land city.

The Basin contains hot climate, rainy weather, most productive land, humid land, fertile and good soil etc. Sera Besi Lamjung, Chutra Besi Ardhakhanchi, Dhuni Besi Dhading, Khimti Besi Ramechhap are the popular Basins of Nepal.

Kali Gandaki River gorge at Dana (1200m) Tatopani in Annapurna circuit trek is the deepest gorge in the world. It lies between Mt. Dhaulagiri (8167m) and Annapuran I (8091m). Tumlingtar in Arun valley (Samkhusabha) is the deepest Tar/valley (457m) in the world that is only 60km far from Mt. Makalu in aerial distance. Mt. Everest and Mt. Kanchanjungha are also close from the Tar.

Nepal lies at the crossroad of Pale-arctic and Oriental Ecological region where are 7500 species of vegetation and that has Outstanding genetic diversities harboring so far 2001AD as follows:

  • Bird 850 types
  • Butterflies 625 types
  • Mammals 183 types
  • Reptiles 171 types (70 of them are snakes and 7 are poison out of 70)
  • Fishes 117 types (all fishes in Nepal are fresh water fishes)


  • Kanchenjungha Conservation area, famous for rare flora and fauna
  • Makalu Barun National Park, famous for floral and faunal studies, specially for bird watching
  • Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, famous for bird watching and wild buffalo
  • Sagarmatha National Park, famous for musk deer, Mt. Everest lies in this park (enlisted in world Heritage site of UNESCO
  • Parsa Wildlife Reserve, famous for lowland flora and fauna
  • Royal Chitwan National Park, famous for bird watching, lowland flora and fauna (enlisted in World Heritage Site)
  • Langtang National Park, famous for wild boar and panda
  • Shivpuri Watershed Area, famous for midland flora and fauna, the main source of water to the Kathmandu valley
  • Manaslu Ecotourism Area (MCAP), famous for high country flora and fauna
  • Annapurna Conservation Area (ACAP), famous for midland and high country flora and fauna
  • Royal Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, famous for hunting
  • Shey-Phoksundo National Park, famous for Shey Gompa, high country flora and fauna (enlisted both in Nepal and Tibet)
  • Royal Bardia National Park, famous for elusive Bengal Tiger, reptiles and Gangetic Dolphin
  • Rara National Park, famous for rare flora and fauna, especially for spiny Babbler
  • Khaptad National Park, famous for rare species of herbal plant, wonderful rolling plateau and best for skiing in winter
  • Royal Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve, famous for spotted deer, python and wetland flora and fauna

Restricted Areas of Nepal(Himalayan regions adjoining to Tibet)
government permit needs, can be entered through government registered trekking/tour companies, must be at least 2 tourists in a group

S.N. Area Trekking permit fee in US dollars
Kanchenjungha region $10 per person per week for 1st 4 week, thereafter double per person per week
Manaslu region $90 per person per week from Sept to Nov, $75 per person per week from Dec to Aug
Upper Mustang / last forbidden kingdom $700 per person for 1st 10 days thereafter  $70 per day per person
Upper Dolpo / extreme fragile ecosystem zone $700 per person for 1st 10 days thereafter  $70 per day per person
Lower Dolpo / fragile ecosystem zone $10 per person per week for 1st 4 week, thereafter double per person per week
Humla / Simikot-Hilsa, Limi Hidden Valley $90 per person for 1st 7 days thereafter $15 per day per person


  • Koshi- Arun
  • Sunkoshi
  • Bhote Koshi
  • Tamor in Eastern Nepal
  • Gandaki
  • Trisuli,
  • Marsyangdi
  • Narayani in Central Nepal
  • Seti, Karnali and Mahakali in Far Western Nepal.


  • Popti pass/Olanchungola : Kimathanka, Samkhuwasabha; Eastern Nepal
  • Nangpala pass : through Cho Oyu, Solukhumbu; in Everest region
  • Kodari pass : Tatopani Sindhupalchowk, all year open very famous pass
  • Kuti pass : through Jungal Himal Central Nepal
  • Rasuwa pass : Rasuwa to Kerung, it was famous in the past and it will also be famous in the future, nowadays the place is going to link with road for the business point of view.
    Lugula pass (6723m): Manang, the highest pass of Nepal between Nepal and Tibet
  • Yari pass : Nara Lagna Humla in Far Western Nepal, is the popular and shortest way to Kailash, Man Sarovar Tibet from Nepal.
  • Tinkar pass : Darchula
  • Newly opened : Kimathanka Pass, Sankhuwasabha Nechung pass, Mustang

RELIGION : Mainly Hindu and Buddhism


Group Age Major units Distribution
Siwalik group Mid-Miocene to Pleistocene Sand stone, mud-stone conglomerates Siwaliks (east to west)
Coral group/Coral Thrust or MBT   Limestone, calcareous, shale Siwaliks, eastern half of the middle mountain
Nuwakot group Precambrian to early Paleozoic Arggillaceous with phyllites Mountains
Katmandu group Pre-Cambrian to Devonian Schists, phyllites, marbles, quartzites, gneiss Middle mountains
Himalayan gneiss group Pre-Cambrian To Cambrian Gneiss, marble, quartzite High mountains, Himalayan region
Tethys or Tibetan group Cambrian to Cretaceous Dolomites, shale quartzite, sandstone Himalayan region


Mt. Everest 8848masl
Mt. Kanchenjunga 8586masl
Mt. Lhoste 8516masl
Mt. Makalu 8463masl
Mt. Cho Oyu 8201masl
Mt. Dhaulagiri 8167masl
Mt. Manaslu 8163masl
Mt. Annapurna 8091masl


  • Pashupatinath (Lord Shiv) temple area -Kathmandu, Central Nepal
  • Lumbini, Lord Buddha's birth place -West Nepal
  • Changunarayan temple area -Bhaktapur, Central Nepal
  • Baudha Stupa area -Kathmandu, Central Nepal
  • Swayambhunath Stupa area -Kathmandu, Central Nepal
  • Hanumandhoka Durbar Square -Kathmandu, Central Nepal
  • Bhaktapur Durbar Square -Bhaktapur, Central Nepal
  • Patan Durbar Square -Lalitpur, Central Nepal
  • Royal Chitwan National Park -Chitwan, Central Nepal
  • Sagarmatha National park -Mt. Everest region, Eastern Nepal


  • The hidden treasurer/living museum of nature and ancient human civilization –Far West Nepal
  • The rolling plateau -Khaptad National Park, Far West Nepal
  • The Border Himalayan valley -Limi valley in Humla
  • The hidden valley -Nar/Phu valley in Manang and Limi valley in Humla West Nepal
  • The last forbidden kingdom -Upper Mustang
  • The bird watcher's paradise -Arun valley, Koshi Tappu and 20 thousand lake in Chitwan etc
  • The Trans-Himalayan trips -Lower and upper Dolpo, upper Mustang, Manang & Limi valley
  • The trekkers' paradise -Helambu, near Kathmandu


  • Ethnic group system - Gurung, Magar, Tamang, Sherpa, Limbu / Rai
  • Hierarchical caste system - Brahmin, Kshetri, Baisya and Sudra
  • Aborigines - Tharu, Danuwar, Majhi, Jhangad, Satar, Kusunda etc.
  • Nomadic Tradition - Raute; still not settled as human being.

Far Western Nepal is a unique part of the world where is still protected the ancient human civilization. A particular tribe of human being -'RAUTE' in this region is still moving from one place to another place looking for food and existence. They say that they are the owner of the forest and the government should not interfere their wild kingdom. Unique Tharu culture in Terai, ancient Hindu culture in mid-mountains and Tibetan culture to the northern part of this region can be seen and experienced very closely.

Beautiful landscape, natural and cultural diversity, people's life style, religious and spiritual aspects, RAUTRE'S hunting life in the forest, wonderful formation of the Himalayan ranges, humanity and brotherhood are the key features of this region. The region is waiting to welcome its valuable guests with warm hospitality. The similar human civilization to the 13th century in western countries can be seen and experienced in this exotic part of the world nowadays. There is lots of information about the trekking areas of central Nepal mentioned in guidebooks written by the foreign authors. Many people have visited the central part of Nepal in and around Kathmandu valley like Annapurna, Everest and Langtang region etc. but very few foreigners have visited in some part of this Far Western region due to the lack of infrastructure development. The region is very far from the modernity and is still untouched by the western out world culture.

Geographically the region is gradually extended from the elevation of 150m plain land Terai to almost 8000m snow capped mountains. It is not exaggeration and hesitation to say- "The Far Western Region is really the hidden treasure and living museum of nature, culture and history on earth." There are many places to see and we like to show the unexplored, new and interesting areas to our guests as well as the already developed areas like Everest, Annapurna etc. The region can be real paradise for the foreigners and even for the domestic tourists.
There is road service and airway service in some parts. All airway services in Far Western Nepal are available in Nepalgunj for the remote sectors. It is hard to get food and other items for the entire trek group in remote mountain areas, so it needs to arrange everything from Kathmandu and Nepalgunj for the trek group.

Earth's Paradise Treks & Expeditions (P) Ltd.
P.O.Box No. 15142 KPC 853, Kathmandu, Nepal

Contact: Mr. Bhim Chand | Tel/fax: :977-1-435-7614
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